Science Can Be Wrong for Decades, Centuries

first_img The reason for sex:  Were you taught in school that the purpose of sexual reproduction is to promote genetic diversity?  Incorrect, says Henry Heng, Ph.D., associate professor at Wayne State University, according to an article in Science Daily.  It’s for maintaining the genome and a species’ identity.  With colleague Root Gorelick, Heng argued in the journal Evolution that previous scientists were dead wrong—for over a century.  “For nearly 130 years, traditional perceptions hold that asexual reproduction generates clone-like offspring and sexual reproduction leads to more diverse offspring,“ the article said, quoting Heng responding, “In reality, however, the relationship is quite the opposite.” Plate tectonics:  How long has plate tectonics been around?  Since the 1960s at least.  Now, PhysOrg is announcing, “New force driving Earth’s tectonic plates discovered.”  California scientists are proposing that a moving mantle plume drove the Indian plate into the Himalayas.  It is doubtful this new model, though, will resolve “long-standing debates about how powerful geological forces shape the planet.” Racked up about antlers:  How long have hunters prized the racks on their deer?  “Emerging from the heads of most cud-chewing mammals, headgear inspire an almost mystical and certainly majestic aura,” an article on PhysOrg began.  “But, scientists say, we know shockingly little about them.”  Consider the variety of headgear on mammals: longhorn cattle, giraffes, bighorn sheep, moose, reindeer, caribou, pronghorns, mountain goats.  The accessibility of these mammals to science would lead one to think they are well understood, but the article includes videos of Edgar Byrd Davis admitting, “This is one of those things where you’d think we’d know more, but we don’t.”  Newt for precedent:  For 250 years, scientists believed there was a limit to how many times an amphibian could regenerate tissues, such as limbs and eyes.  This week, PhysOrg posted a press release with the headline, “Overturning 250 years of scientific theory: Age, repeated injury do not affect newt regeneration.”  Sure enough, “Scientists have been wrong for 250 years about a fundamental aspect of tissue regeneration, according to a University of Dayton biologist who says his recent discovery is good news for humans.”  Dr. Panagiotis Tsonis decided to test the old belief with experiments.  He found that even after 18 times, a newt’s regenerated eye lens was just as good as the first.   “His findings overturn long-accepted theories proposed by regeneration scientists that age and repeated amputation negatively affect regeneration.”  New Scientist also wrote about this scientific upset. Nuclear winter:  In 1983, Carl Sagan and other scientists proclaimed, with the authority of science, that a nuclear war would cast the planet into decades of darkness and cold.  Sagan scared government officials with the prospect of “the extinction of Homo sapiens”.  This week, Russell Seitz in a letter to Nature claimed, “Nuclear winter was and is debatable.”  He quoted skeptical scientists at the time who “regarded this apocalyptic prediction as an exercise in mythology.”  One from MIT said, “Nuclear winter is the worst example of the misrepresentation of science to the public in my memory.”  The skeptics, though, were outshouted by a media sympathetic to Sagan.  Dramatic visualizations on TV of the last humans freezing to death in the dark clinched the story. Pi throwing contest:  What could be more sacred in science than pi, that famous constant we memorized as 3.1416?  Believe it or not, some mathematians want to toss it.  They want two pi, claiming that a new constant named tau, equal to 6.28, would be more useful.  Read about it on PhysOrg, “Math wars: Debate sparks anti-pi day.”  It is true that 2 pi shows up in many equations.  Pi day (March 14) would be replaced by Tau Day (June 28) if US mathematicians Bob Palais and Michael Hartl get their way.  A critic feels this is not a question of error,  just preference: “It’s not a question of right or wrong, but a matter of opinion,” said Patrick Speissegger from McMaster University in Canada. “Philosophically speaking, changing the constant from pi to tau makes no difference.”  The dispute does show, however, that some concepts we assume are out there in the world may actually be in our heads. Health myths:  Arguably, scientists are not to blame for old wives’ tales, unless they promoted them.  Medical Xpress announced, “New book by Indiana University physicians slays health myths we all thought were true.”  Scientists can’t make a clean escape, though.  “The authors admit that even they believed some myths prior to investigating the science, or lack of science, behind them.”  Myths debunked by pediatricians Aaron Carroll  and Rachel Vreeman include: (1) that vitamin C mitigates cold symptoms (advocated by Nobel laureate Linus Pauling), (2) that stretching before running is a good idea, (3) that hydrogen peroxide is a good disinfectant for wounds, (4) that air dryers clean your hands better than paper towels, (5) that eggs are bad for your heart because of high cholesterol, (6) that uncovering a wound at night helps it heal, and others.  (The tale that chicken soup helps you feel better when you have a cold, though, escaped the debunking tests, showing that myths can have a scientific basis).  Readers may want to investigate which myths had been promoted by scientists in the name of science.  Debunking a debunker:  This episode might be called Morton’s Revenge.  The late Stephen Jay Gould, in his 1981 book The Mismeasure of Man, made a big deal out of alleged data fudging by 19th century physician Samuel Morton, claiming that his cranial measurements were unconsciously biased to support Victorian values.  In a Nature editorial last month, the editors discussed a new re-evaluation of both scientists’ claims that gives the edge to the debunked rather than the debunker.  While they may agree with Gould’s politically-correct conclusions, the editors could not endorse his methods.  “At a minimum, Gould’s staunch opposition to racism, and desire to make an example of Morton, may have biased his interpretation of Morton’s data, opening Gould to charges of hypocrisy.”  Let the debunker beware.  The editors shook their heads; “it is remarkable that it has taken more than 30 years for a research group to check Gould’s claims thoroughly.” Many today still remember the catchy phrase nuclear winter and assume it has a scientific basis, but Seitz says, “This potential climate disaster, popularized in Science in 1983, rested on the output of a one-dimensional model that was later shown to overestimate the smoke a nuclear holocaust might engender.  More refined estimates, combined with advanced three-dimensional models… have dramatically reduced the extent and severity of the projected cooling”  – so much so, that the worst-case scenario has fallen “to numbers so unseasonably small as to call the very term ‘nuclear winter’ into question.”  This doesn’t mean, of course, that a nuclear bomb wouldn’t ruin your whole day, but it might do in Homo sapiens with fire, not ice. The history of science shows some wrong theories being accepted by leading scholars for long periods of time.  Ptolemaic astronomy, unquestioned for over 1200 years, is a prime example.  Not all examples are old, though.  In modern times as well, scientists are finding that theories unquestioned for decades, even centuries, were wrong.  That being so, what confidence can we have that today’s scientific beliefs will stand the test of time for the next decade or century?  A recent spate of science articles shows some long-held theories being questioned – others being tossed overboard. Many questions about these fastest-growing bones come to mind: their nature, their development, their evolutionary origins.  It isn’t for lack of trying.  “Among assumptions only recently overturned was the idea that pronghorn antelope were related to antler-wearing deer or horned cattle, goats and sheep,”  the article pointed out.  Davis took science’s claims to knowledge further into left field, saying, “Scientists get a lot of press coverage for dark matter or the Higgs boson because they are among deep mysteries that we are still unlocking. A lot of people assume that most of biology is understood, yet something as fundamental as the age-old question ‘how did the cow get its horns?’ is still not well understood.” Scientists are only human.  They cannot know everything.  Writing a scientific paper requires a literature search; it is tempting to cite a previous paper as authoritative.  After all, who has the time to independently check every detail?  This is one way that wrong ideas can be perpetuated by the scientific community.  Wrong ideas are especially dangerous when they match the political, philosophical or cultural prejudices of those involved (e.g., Freud, 10/15/2009).  As shown here, it may take centuries for someone to check out an idea and find it false.  What could be next? See also 03/17/2006, “Can Scientific Journals Perpetuate False Ideas?” and 01/09/2006, “Peer Review: Can You Trust a Scientific Journal?” and 06/23/2011, “Wrong Again: Planetologists Embarrassed.” Speaking of citing prior works uncritically and perpetuating wrong ideas, our research in these papers has frequently shown evolutionists citing Darwin’s Origin as reference #1 in their papers.  Don’t respect science because it is published in a peer-reviewed journal; respect evidence.  Don’t respect scientists merely because they are scientists; respect evidence.  Don’t follow paradigms; follow evidence.  And don’t follow your perceptions of what constitutes evidence.  Follow evidence that is evidence indeed.(Visited 21 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Pioneer Field Report: Stay the course

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Ohio Ag Net’s Joel Penhorwood catches up with Pioneer Field Agronomist John Schoenhals to discuss what has been on everybody’s minds – delayed planting concerns. Stay the course is his advice to Ohio farmers at this point. Though we’re behind schedule, Schoenhals says there’s economic reasoning to not changing up the plan, which he details in the discussion below. Audio Playerhttps://www.ocj.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/190506_JohnSchoenhals_PioneerFieldReport_FullIntv.mp300:0000:0000:00Use Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease volume.last_img

There will be civil war and bloodbath: Mamata

first_imgWest Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee on Tuesday delivered a loud and clear message that “India needs a change in 2019”.Speaking at a conclave organised by the Catholic Bishops Conference of India on the theme of “Love your neighbour”, Ms. Banerjee said the ruling party’s diktats on “what to eat, what to wear, where to stay” could not be tolerated.“India needs a change and that change has to happen in 2019,” the Chief Minister said. She cautioned the government that there would be a civil war and blood bath in Assam where 40 lakh people had not made it to the final draft list of the National Register for Citizens and faced an uncertain future.“What is going on in Assam? It is not only the Bengalis — it is the minorities, it is Hindus, it is Bengalis, it is Biharis … more than 40 lakh people who voted for the ruling party have suddenly been made refugees in their own country,” Ms. Banerjee said in her 20-minute address.Ms. Banerjee said even members of former President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed’s family had not been included in the NRC. “We can’t let them die,” she said.Against divisions“If Bengalis say Biharis can’t stay in Bengal, South Indian people say North Indians can’t stay there and North Indians say South Indians can’t stay here, what will be [the] state of this country,” she wondered.Referring to the several incidents of lynching across the country, Ms. Banerjee said “I am not that liberal to love people who lynch. I am with the people. If tribals, Dalits and minorities are isolated, it may lead to civil unrest,” she said.Speaking to presspersons, Ms. Banerjee responded sharply to a question on the BJP’s assertion that it would carry out the NRC exercise in West Bengal too. “Who is Amit Shah? Who is BJP? Are they West Bengal’s guardians? Let them first come to power in the State,” the Chief Minister said. (With PTI inputs)last_img read more

Backlash from Mayweather-McGregor will last years, says Duva

first_imgMOST READ LATEST STORIES WATCH: Firefighters rescue baby seal found in parking garage World’s 50 Best Restaurants launches new drinking and dining guide READ: LOOK: Netizens abuzz over confirmed McGregor-Mayweather bout There are some who think that if McGregor starts losing he might resort to throwing elbows and kicks at Mayweather, but the promoters of the fight say that won’t happen.“It is in the contract,” said Dana White. “The fight is under the rules of boxing. There would be a lawsuit. If that ever happened, Conor would depart with a lot of money, and Conor likes money.”White said plans are in the works to have the fighters go on a promotional tour of major US cities.READ: Mayweather says he offered McGregor $15M to fightSince the fight was announced Mayweather has mentioned it just once via social media — as he appears to be more concerned about showing off his extravagant lifestyle.He has launched something he calls the “Mayweather Challenge” because he is “tired of people on social media bragging they live a certain lifestyle when they don’t.”Over the last few days, Mayweather has made a point of using his Twitter and Instagram to show off his private jet.That was followed by another video taken inside his “Rolls-Royce Phantom Limousine” as he boasts about his Patek Philippe gold watch while the camera pans down to show off his “Chinchilla” floor mats. Olympian Michael Phelps set to race against Great White Shark Boxing legend Mayweather and mixed martial arts superstar McGregor announced plans on Wednesday for a boxing showdown that could become one of the richest bouts in history. The fight will take place August 26 in the American boxing capital of Las Vegas.READ: Mayweather, McGregor agree to August super fight FEATURED STORIESSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutout“You’re all going to write about it. People will get all excited,” Duva said of the competition. “And the casual fans we always want to bring into the tent are going to be disappointed again.“It’s going to be years before they want to see another boxing event,” she told the Los Angeles Times. Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Jordan delivers on promise: 2 Cobra choppers now in PH 1 dead in Cavite blast, fire View comments Conor McGregor teases fans as he posts a photoshopped poster of him and Floyd Mayweather Jr. on his Twitter account. Photo from Conor McGregor’s Twitter accountPromoter Kathy Duva says the Floyd Mayweather-Conor McGregor fight is “bad for boxing” and the backlash from the exhibition spectacle will likely dog the sport for years to come.“Of course it’s bad for boxing,” said Duva. “It’s going to suck up all the air in the room.”ADVERTISEMENT Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss PLAY LIST 02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. What ‘missteps’? Lacson: SEA Games fund put in foundation like ‘Napoles case’ Mayweather, who is considered one of the greatest boxers of all time, is a heavy favourite against McGregor — who hasn’t boxed competitively in the ring since he was a teenager.READ: McGregor backers: Mayweather fight is no sideshow“It’s not a boxing event, it’s a spectacle,” said Duva, who is the promoter for Russian boxer Sergey Kovalev, who will fight Andre Ward in a world title light heavyweight rematch on Saturday.“On the other hand, when this is over and this fight ends up the way I expect it will, the next time somebody asks me, ‘MMA or boxing, what’s the better sport?’ I’ll say, ‘We know who the bad asses are because Ronda Rousey and Conor McGregor just got their asses kicked by two boxers.’“We’ll have that to cling to,” she told the paper.ADVERTISEMENT Heart Evangelista admits she’s pregnant… with chicken Heart Evangelista admits she’s pregnant… with chickenlast_img read more

Argentina chief Im sure Messi will return in 2019

first_imgArgentina general manager Jorge Burruchaga is hopeful that the national team haven’t seen the last of Lionel MessiThe Barcelona forward absence’s for Argentina continues after his name again failed to show in Lionel Scaloni’s squad list for the international break.It means that Messi has now not represented Argentina since June 30, where they went crashing out of the World Cup in the last-16 stage to eventual winners France.While Messi himself has remained silent on his Argentina future, Burruchaga expects him back for next year’s Copa America in Brazil.“No date is scheduled right now for the return of Messi and he will not be back before the end of the year,” Burruchaga told Goal.FC Barcelona, Valencia CFMatch Preview: Barcelona vs Valencia Boro Tanchev – September 14, 2019 Is derby time in La Liga, as Barcelona welcomes Valencia to the Camp Nou Stadium tonight at 21:00 (CET).“But it’s impossible that he will not be in the national team again. This is transitory.“I’m sure that next year, he will be in the Argentina national team again.”Messi has scored a record 65 goals and added 42 assists in 128 matches for Argentina.La Albiceleste will play Mexico on Saturday in Cordoba before facing Mexico four days later.last_img read more

CWC 2018 Real Madrid and Al Ain are set to make

first_imgBoth teams are playing for important objectives: Real Madrid wants its third consecutive world title, while Al Ain wants to be the first non-European/South American championTomorrow, football fans have a date with history as the Grand Final of the 2018 FIFA Club World Cup is set to play.Spanish La Liga giants Real Madrid will take on local Emirati surprise club Al Ain FC, to decide who is the best team in the planet.And both sides are playing for important objectives.Madrid is participating in its fourth FIFA Club World Cup Final, and third consecutive, and want to become the biggest champion in the tournament.They are currently tied with three tiles with fellow Spanish team Barcelona.Meanwhile, Al Ain FC has surprised the world, not only by beating New Zealand’s Team Wellington in the Playoff match, but also defeating Espérance Sportif de Tunis in the Quarterfinals.Sergio Ramos, Real MadridZidane reveals Sergio Ramos injury concern for Real Madrid Andrew Smyth – September 14, 2019 Zinedine Zidane has put Sergio Ramos’ availability for Real Madrid’s trip to Sevilla next weekend in doubt after withdrawing him against Levante.The Boss then defeated Copa Libertadores king River Plate, in a surprising match that had to be decided in penalty kicks.This means, that they have the chance to become the first non-European/South American champion in the tournament’s history.Before this match, Argentina’s River Plate will take on Japanese and Asian champions Kashima Antlers to settle the Third Place of the CWC.Who do you think will win the tournament this Saturday?#CWC18: You can follow all our coverage of the FIFA Club World Cup in our different social media. @ClubWorldCups pic.twitter.com/0BmSDpo0kQ— Ronaldo.com (@ronaldocomint) December 15, 2018last_img read more

BTS To Release New Album Love Yourself Answer With Upcoming Tour

first_img Twitter BTS To Release New Album ‘Love Yourself: Answer’ With Upcoming Tour BTS’ New Album Arriving By Tour-Time bts-release-new-album-love-yourself-answer-upcoming-tour News Follow up to ‘Love Yourself: Tear’ expected to arrive Aug. 24, just in time for the crew’s world tourPhilip MerrillGRAMMYs Jul 16, 2018 – 12:30 pm On July 16, BigHit entertainment let out the big news that bestselling K-pop group BTS will release their new album Love Yourself: Answer on Aug. 24, the day before they begin the Love Yourself World Tour on Aug. 25 in Seoul. Love Yourself: Tear reached No. 1 on the Billboard 200 chart dated June 2, the first time ever a Korean band has claimed the top spot. Although the hints are more tantalizing so far than revealing, it looks like they are aiming for a repeat.On that same June 2 chart, the BTS single “Fake Love” reached No. 10 on the Hot 100, their first Top 10 hit. On Oct. 17, 2017, the band’s “DNA” from their album Love Yourself: Her reached No. 67, kicking off the latest period in which public awareness of the seven more-than-idols exploded. Although the band’s music quality has always been high, Love Yourself: Tear reached an unexpected level of growth, both critically and in sales.center_img BTS will arrive in Los Angeles on the U.S. leg of their sold-out tour on Sept. 5, just after Labor Day. That will be one week after they are expected to begin performing their highly anticipated new material. Whatever the details prove to be, this is going to get a lot of attention from the group’s passionate fanbase. Fans went wild as news of the announcement spread, and BTS Army are bound to do their best to spur sales.BTS offers their fans a lot: targeted content, the rich backstory of alternative BTS universes and symbolism, even a philanthropic context connecting fanhood to global citizenship. Three percent of all Love Yourself album proceeds have been pledged to the group’s UNICEF Love Myself international campaign. Simply put, these young men have taken K-pop to unprecedented heights.Moreover, it takes more than nerve for first-ever pop stars to drop a new album only two months after having an album at No. 1. That’s artistic confidence, and the fan army are not the only ones wondering what behind-the-scenes songs BTS will unleash, challenging themselves like this. We know the answer is in an album called “Answer” and besides that, the world will have to wait.Catching Up On Music News Powered By The Recording Academy Just Got Easier. Have A Google Home Device? “Talk To GRAMMYs”Read more Email Facebook last_img read more

China hails courage of North South Korean leaders

first_imgNorth Korea`s leader Kim Jong Un (L) and South Korea`s President Moon Jae-in (R) pose for a photo during their summit in the Peace House building on the southern side of the truce village of Panmunjom on 27 April. Photo: AFPChina on Friday heaped praised on the leaders of the two Koreas for holding a landmark summit, calling their handshake over the Military Demarcation Line that divides the peninsula a “historic moment”.“We applaud the Korean leaders’ historic step and appreciate their political decisions and courage,” foreign ministry spokesperson Hua Chunying told a regular press briefing.“We hope and look forward to them taking this opportunity to further open a new journey of long-term stability on the peninsula.”She also cited a poem that reads: “We remain brothers after all the vicissitudes; let’s forgo our old grudges, smiling we will meet again.”China is North Korea’s sole major ally but it has supported a series of United Nations sanctions to punish Pyongyang over its nuclear and missile tests.Beijing has pressed for dialogue to peacefully resolve the nuclear crisis.last_img

A type of semitransparent polymer that can be mended at room temperature

first_imgCredit: Yu Yanagisawa A small team of researchers at the University of Tokyo has created a polymer that can be repaired when broken into two parts by applying a small amount of pressure at room temperature. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes how they came upon the polymer, how it was made, and how well it can be repaired. Materials may lead to self-healing smartphones This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Journal information: Science The researchers report that to test the material, they cut a small tile into to two pieces, then pressed the two pieces together into the original configuration using just a small force at room temperature. After 30 seconds, they further report, the healed tile could support a 300-gram weight. They note that pressing the material for longer amounts of times allows for even stronger bonds to form—eventually, after a couple of hours, the material reaches the same degree of bonding as it had prior to being cut or broken.More work will have to be done with the material before it can be used in a smartphone screen, however, such as making it more transparent. More information: Yu Yanagisawa et al. Mechanically robust, readily repairable polymers via tailored noncovalent cross-linking, Science (2017). DOI: 10.1126/science.aam7588AbstractExpanding the range of healable materials is an important challenge for sustainable societies. Noncrystalline, high molecular weight polymers generally form mechanically robust materials, which, however, are difficult to repair once they are fractured. This is because their polymer chains are heavily entangled and diffuse too sluggishly to unite fractured surfaces within reasonable timescales. Here, we report that low molecular weight polymers, when cross-linked by dense hydrogen bonds, give mechanically robust yet readily repairable materials, despite their extremely slow diffusion dynamics. A key was to utilize thiourea, which anomalously forms a zigzag hydrogen-bonded array that does not induce unfavorable crystallization. Another key was to incorporate a structural element for activating the exchange of hydrogen-bonded pairs, which enables the fractured portions to rejoin readily upon compression. Engineers around the world have been working hard to find a type of glass or plastic that can be healed easily when broken to address the problem of broken screens on phones and other portable devices. While some progress has been made, there still exists a need for something better. In this new effort, the researchers report on a new type of plastic that can be healed by simply pressing the broken pieces back together.As the researchers describe it, a team member was investigating glue properties with polymers when they discovered that one of the polymers under study could mend itself just by pushing the pieces together. Intrigued, the group looked closer. They found that the hydrogen bonds in the polymer formed in a way that did not crystallize, allowing the molecular chains to move freely. This allowed the bonds to re-form easily under just a small amount of pressure. After working with several configurations, the team settled on a polymer called polyether-thioureas (TUEG3)—it offered the best healing properties of those tested. Citation: A type of semi-transparent polymer that can be mended at room temperature using small pressure (2017, December 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-12-semi-transparent-polymer-room-temperature-small.html © 2017 Phys.orglast_img read more